Work Stress. Home Stress. Financial Stress.
The toll of chronic stress isn't limited to emotional suffering. High stress can set the stage for heart disease.
In fact, research shows that those of us who perceive a lot of stress in our lives are at higher risk of heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems over the long term.
The latest evidence comes from a new study of siblings in Sweden. Researchers identified about 137,000 people who had been diagnosed with stress-related disorders; the diagnoses included post-traumatic stress disorder or acute stress following a traumatic event, such as the death of a loved one or a violent episode. Then, the researchers identified about 171,000 of their brothers and sisters who had similar upbringings and genes — but no anxiety disorder.
Next, they compared the siblings' rates of cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks, cardiac arrest and blood clots, over a number of years.
The Swedes who had a stress disorder, it turns out, had significantly higher rates of heart problems compared to their siblings.
"We saw [about] a 60 percent increased risk of having any cardiovascular events" within the first year after being diagnosed, says researcher Unnur A Valdimarsdóttir of the Karolinska Institute, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Iceland. Over the longer term, the increased risk was about 30 percent, Valdimarsdóttir says.
The findings, published in the current issue of the medical journal BMJ, "are quite consistent with other studies," says Simon Bacon of Concordia University, who studies the impact of lifestyle on chronic diseases. He points to other studies that show depression, anxiety and stress increase the risk of cardiovascular events. He wrote an editorial that is published alongside the study.
So, when is stress just a normal part of life — something we all just need to deal with — and when does it become so problematic that it sets the stage for disease? Part of the answer depends on how we respond to stress, the scientists say, and on our own internal perceptions about how much stress we're feeling.
We've all experienced the fight-or-flight stress response.
"Imagine you're walking down the street and someone jumps out and gives you a scare," says Bacon. What happens? Your heart rate increases and your blood pressure climbs. "You have that immediate activation," Bacon says. In the short term, this temporary response is good. It gives you what you need to flee or take action.
The problem comes if you start to experience these stress response "activations" even when there's not an imminent threat.
"When people have stress disorders, these systems are being activated at all the wrong times," Bacon says. For instance, with PTSD, "you can get very exaggerated stress responses just thinking about something that happened."
People who experience chronic stress seem to be at highest risk of health problems.
"Over the long term, repeated, persistent [stress] responses will activate the immune system and contribute to inflammation," says Dr. Ernesto Schiffrin, a physician and professor of medicine at McGill University. He says inflammation can set the stage for atherosclerosis, also known as hardening of the arteries. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood to your heart and body. When the arteries narrow, this limits blood flow — increasing the likelihood of a heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular event.
Since we can't wave a magic wand and make stress disappear, what are the best coping options? There's no magic bullet, but day-to-day habits can help tamp down stress.
Schiffrin says he gives his patients this advice: Eat in a healthy way, attempt to have good relationships, have a good attitude, spend time in nature, and exercise. "I think exercise is critical," Schiffrin says.
Let's take a closer look at each of these.
- Exercise: When researchers analyzed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention survey data from more than a million adults in the U.S., they found that people who exercised reported fewer days of bad mental health compared to those who didn't exercise. And, as we've reported, there was an extra 'boost' in mental health linked to playing team sports. But whether you choose a simple walk, forest-bathing, or a group activity, who doesn't feel a little better after moving their body?
- Cultivate friendships: Loneliness is an epidemic. And, as we've reported, a recent survey found 2 in 5 respondents reported lacking companionship or said they felt isolated from others. Yet, spending time with friends can really boost our mood. No matter your stage of life, signing up for a group activity or volunteering are good options for getting and staying engaged in the community around you.
- Learn meditation or relaxation techniques: Mindfulness meditation has been shown to tamp down the stress response and even help reduce blood pressure among people who can maintain the habit. As we've reported, one study found that meditation helped 40 out of 60 patients reduce their blood pressure enough to reduce some of their medications.
- Eat well: There is indeed a link between food and mood. As we've reported, a diet full of refined carbohydrates and sugar (the sort you'll find in packaged snacks and sodas) can lead to a metabolic roller coaster that can influence your mood, too. On the other hand, a Mediterranean-style diet — rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fish — can leave you feeling nourished.
- Seek help for anxiety disorders: These day-to-day habits may help reduce the amount of stress you feel, but for people with stress disorders such as PTSD, it may be best to reach out to a professional for help. "People should treat their mental health issues," says Bacon. You don't have to "grin and bear it." Mental health professionals have lots of tools.
"You don't want to put yourself in a position where you could make your health worse by not doing anything," Bacon says.
DAVID GREENE, HOST:
It's well-known that a bad diet can contribute to heart disease, right? Well, now there's increasing evidence that your emotional health can drive the risk of heart attacks and strokes, as well. NPR's Allison Aubrey reports on what scientists have learned from a new study of Swedish siblings.
ALLISON AUBREY, BYLINE: Our bodies are equipped with sophisticated systems to handle stress. And the most common one you've probably heard of, the fight-or-flight response. Researcher Simon Bacon of Concordia University says we've all experienced it.
SIMON BACON: You can imagine you're walking down the street, and someone jumps out in front of you and gives you a scare. You have that sort of immediate activation.
AUBREY: Your heart rate increases. Your blood pressure goes up. And in the short-term, this is good. It gives you what you need to run away. But for some people, these fight-or-flight reactions begin to happen all the time, even when there's no imminent threat.
BACON: The problem is, is when people have stress disorders, these systems are being activated at all the wrong times. Quite often, with things like PTSD, for example, you can get these very exaggerated stress responses just thinking about something that happened.
AUBREY: This can take its toll on your mental health and your physical health, driving up the risk of heart attacks and other types of heart disease. The latest evidence comes from a study of tens of thousands of siblings in Sweden. Here's researcher Unnur Valdimarsdottir.
UNNUR VALDIMARSDOTTIR: In the Nordic countries and in Sweden, we have these registers where we can follow the total population.
AUBREY: Now, using these registries, Valdimarsdottir and her colleagues identified about 130,000 people who'd been diagnosed with a stress disorder. Many of them had acute stress following a traumatic event such as the death of a loved one or a violent episode. Then they identified about 170,000 of their brothers and sisters who did not have stress disorders. Then they compared the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks, strokes, cardiac arrest and blood clots.
VALDIMARSDOTTIR: We saw over 60 percent increased risk of having any cardiovascular events.
AUBREY: Concordia's Simon Bacon says it's a wakeup call to people who struggle with stress but don't reach out for help. Practices such as mindfulness meditation and exercise can help tamp down stress. But Bacon says stress disorders are serious.
BACON: If you have a lot of chronic stress in your life, go see a health care professional because these things really disrupt your life.
AUBREY: And put your health at risk. Allison Aubrey, NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.